Get to know the basic baking Ingredients ?

Get to know the basic baking Ingredients ?


Plain flour which is called refined wheat flour is basically used to make bakery products like tarts, cakes, breads and cookies. In India plain flour is called Maida and sometimes they are referred to as All purpose flour. The protein in flour is called gluten and they help to form the structure of baked products. They are free from copper which makes it suitable for Wilson’s disease patients to choose this flour.

Now-a- days bakers have tried other varieties of ingredients like Whole wheat flour or atta flour, millets in powdered form for gluten free version.


Animal fat was used as shortening in early days of baking. Now days butter or margarine made from vegetable oils are used.


Eggs are both raising as well as binding agents which adds richness and flavour to the baked product. Average weight of the egg is 50 to 60 gms.


Different types of sugar which are used for baking includes granulated sugar or grain sugar, caster sugar, powdered sugar, brown sugar, Demerara sugar, icing sugar, palm jaggery, honey and molasses

Grain sugar is regular table sugar .

Caster sugar is extra fine sugar but not powdered which is best used making macroons and cakes.

Powdered sugar is grain sugar grounded to a fine powder.

Brown sugar is unrefined or partially refined sugar with sugar crystals and its brown colour is due to the presence of molasses.

Demerara sugar is light brown in colour and coarser than brown sugar which is partially refined sugar which originated in the colony of Demerara now called Guyana.

Icing sugar is fine powdered sugar with corn flour added to it inorder to prevent lumps or caking.

Raising or Leavening Agents:

Baking Powder is a blend of an acid and an alkali which is sodium bicarbonate. Now-a-days double acting baking powder is available in market which means that the first reaction occurs when it is added to the batter and the second reaction takes place when heating take place.

Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate which is a chemical leavening agent where recipe includes acidic ingredients like cocoa powder,vinegar,buttermilk,honey,lemon juice etc.If too much of baking soda is used the baked product will have a soapy effect.

Baker’s yeast is commonly available in many forms like active dry yeast , instant yeast, compressed cream yeast or fresh yeast . The strains of yeast are used as a leavening agent used in bakery products. If the recipe includes 20 gms of fresh yeast and all you got in pantry is active dry yeast use ½ of 20 gms that is 10 gms . If you have instant yeast then add ¼ gms of 20 gms which 5 gms.


It is used inorder to balance the sweetness of recipe and enhances flavour.

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